Welcome to the OVERUNITY-THEORY page

Mission and Disclaimer 

The theme of this website is the physical comparison between experiment and theory of perpetuum mobile claims and overunity operation. Interesting are the conditions where overunity devices might work and where not. To promote discussions ideas are spread here at a suboptimal workbench level of different degrees of quality. 
The website is published mainly as a individual, private and non-profit initiative.
If it is not noted otherwise the author does not speak for any institution or company but only for himself.
We will do our best to present correct facts. But especially in this area of science errors may be possible at this initial hobbyist level under the present restrictions. It is the policy of this page to raise the discussion of overunity to a scientific level by steady following the theme. So be careful: You are here on glazed frost. If you believe in these things you are doing this in your own responsibility !
Linked paged of other authors are only illustrative and may not represent the opinion of the author. We decline any responsiblity for political or scientific correctness for linked websites because we cannot supervise the web permanently. If this website may violate any laws and rights please inform us for correction.

The Author:  Wolf-Dietrich Bauer                                           last update 05.09.2019

the published books

Bauer, Wolf-Dietrich
About Energy Conservation, Second Law and Overunity 
  WDB-Verlag Berlin 2015 ISBN 978-3-9801452-4-4, 182 pages   ( out of print! )
The book has a theoretical approach. It makes some reports about working perpetuum mobiles understandable because it reduces any mystified super hyper high tech concept to simple scientific common sense ready for engineering. Serious perpetuum mobile claims are explained as analoga to wind wheels. They can be described by non-conservative field mathematics. The book is the most actual update of the article collection of this website. It contains much new material like a discussion of inverted hysteresis systems. All information in this monography is carefully referenced. The contents of the book you find here !

Talks about the contents of the book: at DVR -Congress Berlin 28/29 Nov. 2015:        in German        in English

Jörgenson, Lars    (Pseudonym)
Ein Überblick über die Grauzone in der Wissenschaft 

Copyright  WDB-Verlag Berlin 1990 ISBN 3-9801452-0-4, 366 pages (out of print !)
This monography tells the history about men who tried to include life energy concepts into science. It extracts and refers carefully all facts about Od (v.Reichenbach), Atonizität und Zoozität (Ziegler), Orgon (W.Reich), N-rays(Blondlot), Schauberger and gives a short chapter about esoteric concepts which rely all on the concept of life energy.

all downloads here only in German !

      Title, Table of contents and glossary   from the 1st edition 1990 
1)   Introduction 2) Report on "Odlehre" of Reichenbach
3)   Report on "Atonizitaet and Zoozitaet" of Ziegler
4)   Report on the "Magnetometer Fortin"     (4,7MB)
5)   Report on the "Detektion einer Emanation" by Mueller
6)   Report "Abriß der Orgonomie" about the work of Wilhelm Reich      (~6MB)
7)   Report "Korschelt'scher Lebensstrahler und das Elektroid"    (1,6 MB)
8)   Report "Die N-Strahlen"  about Blondlot's experiments and its history   (1,1 MB) 
9)   Report "Abriß der Esoterik"  (1,1 MB) 

10) Report "Implosion statt Explosion - das Werk von Viktor Schauberger"  (12 MB) 
11) Report "Panspermie, kosmische Gene und die Runen"  (600 kB)

Test of thermodynamical overunity claims
1) Second law induced existence conditions for isothermal 2-phase region cyclic processes in binary mixtures 
W.D. Bauer, W. Muschik, Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics Vol.23, No.2  1998 , p.141-158

2) Kink conditions for isobars in binary v-x-phase diagrams induced by the second law
W.D. Bauer, W. Muschik, Archives of Thermodynamics Vol.19, No.3-4,   1998, p.59-83

Conditions describing the behavior of the kink of isobars at the dew line in v-x- phase diagrams of binary mixtures are proved using the second law. They are interesting in connection to the compatibility of Serogodsky´s and van Platen´s cycles with the second law of thermodynamics. The conditions are tested using a generalized Bender equation of state with mixture rules of Tsai and Shuy. The second article contains additionally the complete set of formulas useful for programming for modifying these equations of state.

3)  Das Perpetuum Mobile von heute - wissenschaftlich fundiert und state of the art
Frank Wiepuetz (Pseudonym)
NET-Journal Vol.11(3/4) 2006, p.18-21 (in German)

4)  Actual candidates for second law violations
Frank Wiepuetz (Pseudonym)
NET-Journal Vol.11(3/4) 2006, detailed addendum to the previous article. (in English)

Thermodynamics in Fields

5) The generalized first law and thermodynamic cycles   released 6.12.99

The article represents the first law as abstract mathematical definition to describe cyclic processes. Acc. to the author it has nothing to do whether a quantity like energy can be measured balanced experimentally.
Furthermore the van Platen cycle is presented. The general thermodynamical theory of the problem is written down and applied to a (quite lenghty) Bender equation of state describing a mixture. The main line of the computer calculation is explained. The van Platen cycle is calculated.
As results profiles of pressure, concentration and spec. volume versus the radius of a centrifuge are shown. In effect a overunity cycle of the van Platen cycle is not possible.

To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !

6) Second law versus variation principles
released 5.9.00, corrected 22.01.2002, 08.02.02, 10.02.02, 09.04.02, 02.07.02, 28.10.03

The field-dependent equilibrium thermodynamics is derived  with two methods: either by using the potential formalism either by the statistical method. Therefore, Pontrjagin's extremum principle of control theory is  applied to an extended ensemble average. This  approach  allows to derive the grand  partition function of thermodynamics  as a result of a control  problem with the  Hamilton energy. Furthermore, the maximum entropy principle follows  and the second law in a  modified form. The derivation  can predict second law violations if cycles with  irreversibilities in varying  potential fields  are included into consideration. This conclusion is supported indirectly  by experimental  data from literature. The upper  maximum gain efficiency of a cycle with a known polymer solution as dielectrics  was estimated to less than 1 promille  per cycle.
Note added in proof 28th October 2003:
Comparing this preprint work with an analogous ferrofluidic system discrepancies are found . The concrete models shown in section 5 are insufficient to settle the question. A way to solve the problem is proposed.

The articles above replace and updates the following older articles:
 Incompatibility of Planck¹s version of Second Law regarding mixtures in fields   released 29.5.96
( basic ideas crossposted 4.-6.April 1995 by harti@shb.contrib.net (new email adress: harti@harti.com) under the thread ³TOMI and PM_square explanation² to the newsgroups sci.energy, alt.energy.renewable, alt.paranet.science, alt.sci.physics.new-theories, cl.energie.alternativen, de.sci.electronics, sci.environment, sci.physics, sci.physics.fusion, sci.physics.particle)
 From mechanics to thermodynamics    released 6.7.98

To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !

Test of mechanical overunity claims

7) The parametric overunity rotator - the Wuerth power booster
released 13.11.99, withdrawn 28.2.00, revised 10.4.00, corrections 15.4.00, big update 11.9.00
for the new preprint pdf - file (Acrobat 4.0) from 30.10.2001 download click here

A simple mechanical setup proposed and built by F. Wuerth is calculated acc. to theoretical mechanics. The calculation predicts no overunity behaviour due to parametric changing moment of inertia. The calculation of the author is supported by his own experimental observations. Experiments of Wuerth und Bucher deviate from the prediction of classical mechanics.

To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !

Experiments to the article above:
   The parametric rotator - a simple experiment   18.11.00
   The "gliding pearl" experiment16.9.01
   The "falling disk" experiment4.10.01
   The "Imris" experiment  2.7.02
   A evaluation proposal for the Wuerth centrifugal pumper released 2.7.02

Wuerth's centrifugal pumper is proposed for evaluation. Acc. to Wuerth the cause of the claimed overunity are forces deviatiating from classical mechanics. A setup to check this forces is proposed. Acc. to theoretical mechanics no overunity is possible. A calculation method is presented which allows to describe the behaviour of the pumper from classical mechanic. This method has the advantage that no inertial tensor are needed for description.

To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !

Test of electrical overunity claims

8) The Brown-Ecklin generator

A theoretical electromechanical model of Brown's generator is simulated. It proves the possibility of overunity work efficiency confirming Brown's measurements qualitatively. The energy balance of this machine is discussed. Improvements of the models are proposed to fit the the model closer to reality. The technology adapting this generators to today electrical energy production and consumption is outlined. In Part 4 we built a modified Brown-Ecklin type flux-switch generator and tested its efficiency. The test results do support the usual belief in energy conservation. The results are in contradiction with our theoretical prediction. The causes of this discrepancy are discussed.

Part 1: 1) Introduction 2) the Brown-Ecklin generator   released 14.12.96

Part 2: 3) Computer simulation of the Brown generator   1.version 15.12.96, 2. version 20.2.97, revised 3.3.97

Part 3: 4) Energy balance of the Brown generator 5) Technological outlook ; Bibliography
1.version released 15.12.96, revised 8.1.97, 2.version 20.2.97, revised 3.3.97

Part 4: Test results of the BHT- flux-switch generator   released 11.8.97

Part 5: A DC-motor proposal without brushes   released 16.2.99

It is shown that non-conservative force-field can be generated by a construction using a permanent current distribution including iron as magnetic shielding material driving permanent magnets as rotors giving off mechanic energy. This motor changes the torque in the magnetic field into motion.

To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !

Inverted hysteresis as basic physical overunity effect ?

9) Do non-conservative potential perpetual running machines exist ?
released 26.6.97 some additions 8.7.97 revised 5.5.98

It is shown that a system of coupled cog-wheels obeys a non-conservation relation of angular momentum.
It is shown shown by an example that a changing charge in a (conservative) ratched potential is subjected to a non-conservative force field which generates a perpetuum mobile cycle. It is shown that this model supports the perpetuum mobile claims of the Watson-Hartmann SMOT device only if it is assumed that magnetisation of the moving iron material depends from field gradient dH/dx as well which can be present in micromagnetism. A nonlinear dependence of magnetisation from the field H alone gives no perpetuum mobile cycle. This fact is analogous to the known behaviour of electric cycles of non-linear capacity and coil.

To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !

10) The Zaev-effect

The Zaev effect is a electro- or magnetocaloric effect which is claimed to violate the Second Law. The effect appears if a capacitance is charged and discharged with different velocities. Then under certain conditions more output than input energy needed comes from the capacitance probably due to a conversion of heat into electricity during the cycle. For introductional reading and following the last discussions, see here.
A differential equation is developed which calculates the the thermal hysteresis of an arbitrary material in an electric cycle. It is shown by a numerical example for susceptibilities dependent in first order from E that the Zaev effect can not be produced as a classical electrocaloric thermodynamic effect. Experimental data from Partington et al. suggest that such an effect may exist if the paraelectric material properties show relaxation under voltage, i.e. if they are time dependent. In Part III literature references are discussed which seem to confirm the experimental data and give an outlook on new possible theoretical interpretations of these effects.

Part I : The differential equation of the problem released 22.12.98
Part II : The differential equation solved and its results and independent experiments released 20.1.99
Part III: Further experimental and theoretical evidence under discussion  released 28.4.99

To get the preprint HTML versions click on the links above !

11) The Maxwell equations including magnetic monopoles   released 29.1.04

The derivation of the Maxwell equations is reproduced whereby magnetic charges are included. This ansatz yields following results:
1) Longitudinal Ampère forces in a differential magnetostatic force law are improbable. Otherwise a electric current would generate magnetic charges.
2) Simple magnetic and electric induced polarization phenomena are completely analogous and are described by a Laplace equation.
3) Permanent magnetic fields can be understood to be caused by magnetic charges. Consequently, a moving permanent magnet represent  a magnetic current which generates a electric field. Applications of this theory could be Hamel-spinner and Searl-disk.
4) The electromagnetic tensors of energy and momentum have some additional terms which are written down generally.
5) If the electric material parameter are influenced by non-electric variables (for instance temperature or pressure), the formalism of electrodynamics is not sufficient to describe the system and has to be completed by further differential equations from the other areas of physics.
6) Nonlinear electro-thermodynamic systems may violate the second law of thermodynamics. This is illustrated by a electric cycle with a data storing FET invented by Yusa & Sakaki.

To get the zipped PDF ( ~500 kB !) version click on the link above !

12)  Von der invertierten Hysterese zum Overunity-Oszillator
Wilfried Rodzaff (Pseudonym)
NET-Journal Vol.12(1/2) 2007, p.18-21 (in German)

13)  From inverted hysteresis to the overunity oscillator
Wilfried Rodzaff (Pseudonym)
NET-Journal Vol.12(1/2) 2007, with detailed addendum to the previous article. (in English)

To get the PDF version click on the link above !

14)  Future Energy eNews - IRI/Sept 9,2006
from a letter to A. Schneider (in English)

To get the PDF version click on the link above !

 last update 05.09.2019