A motor proposal without brushes
by W.D.Bauer © released 14.2.99


It is shown that non-conservative force-field can be generated by a construction using a permanent current distribution including iron as magnetic shielding material driving permanent magnets as rotors giving off mechanic energy. This motor changes the torque in the magnetic field into motion.

On the site of J.L. Naudin there exist some proposals of exotic wound coils. The aim of this proposals is to generate non-conservative force field useful for drive bodies. Because I thought over this theme some years ago I reproduce here an updated old posting as an possible answer about the problem.

Absender   : harti shb.contrib.de @ 2:2410/208.2
Betreff    : Burn's critique on PM_Square! free energy !
Datum      : Di 09.05.95, 19:39  (erhalten: 12.05.95)
From: harti@shb.contrib.de (Stefan Hartmann)
Newsgroups: alt.energy.renewable, alt.paranet.science,
alt.sci.physics.new-theories, cl.energie.alternativen, sci.energy,
sci.environment, sci.physics

Stefan Hartmann (harti@shb.contrib.de) wrote:
: Hi,
: I received this from an "anonymous" friend. Please read it and let me know
: what you think about this theory for the explanation of the TOMI and PM_Square
: effect !
: c) Permanent Magnet Motors
:                     ___________________________
:                   /                             \
:                 /                                 \
:  Mu metal     /                                     \
:  housing    /                                         \
:           /                                             \
:         /                                                 \
:       /                   _______________                   \
:     /                   /    ------->     \                   \
:    |       current    /      B-fields       \                  |
:    |          tube  /           |             \                |
:    |              /             |               \              |
:    |             |    /---------|----------\     |             |
:    |             |  / _______  <--  ________ \   |             |
:    |             |  ||S     N| /-\ |N      S||   |             |
:    |             |  ||_______| \-/ |________||   |             |
:    |             |  \       axis wire        /   |             |
:    |             |    \--------------------/     |             |
:    |              \           rotor              /             |
:    |               \    \                      /               |
:    |                \     \-->               /                 |
:     \                 \ ___________________/                  /
:       \                                                     /
:         \                                                 /
:           \                                             /
:             \                                         /
:               \                                     /
:                 \                                 /
:                   \_____________________________/
: fig.4 magnetic motor with no brushes; top view
: the magnet charges on the rotor are spinning around the axis wire
: in the stationary double circular and opposite rot B fields of
: the wire and the current tube.
Unfortunately, there is no opposite B field inside the current tube due to the current in the current tube.  The B field due to the tube cancels inside but does exist outside the tube.
The Jackson text is entirely wrong if it does discuss magnetic fields
without a potential - the electromagnetic 4-potential A always applies to the conservation of 4-momentum (energy and momentum) by electromagnetic interactions.  See GRAVITATION by Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler. The simultaneous presence of bare electric and magnetic monopole charges is required to destroy the 4-potential and allow free energy devices.  I have found a design for such a device and submitted it for publication in the spirit of criticism of monopole theory.
Michael J. Burns     Contradiction resolution is the stuff of the universe.
mburns@indirect.com  Observers fulfill the apriori need for fallibility.
Here is our reply: ( I received this from my anonymous friend, he is very good in theory !)
                     Permanent magnetic field motor
In the last lines of my last post I proposed to build a permanent magnetic field motor using a circular non-conservative magnetic field exerted on the magnetic charges of a magnetic dipol. In principle, this field can be generated by a broken current loop (i.e. free moving charged particles or current loops whose magnetic field is shielded partially by using partially a mu-metal wrapped magnetic field shielding cable). It is not not possible to do this with closed current loops whose field can be described formally by a potential (1).
In this context another problem I emphasized was that in non-closed current loops the magnetic force law between single differential current elements seem not to be decided experimentally until today (2). For broken current loops it seems unclear what is the correct law for the magnetic field.
Going back to this pre-Maxwellian-standpoint the adequate form of the broken loop "Maxwell equations" remains unclear as well as the electrodynamic of the theory of relativity, which is based upon. If one accepts this pre-Maxwellian standpoint a disproval of my motor would be possible only if there exist appropriate "Maxwell equations" for every differential magnetic force law and for every broken current loop, which is not the case. Only if we have closed current loops a derivation of the Maxwell equations is possible and, if we know Maxwell's equations we can derive a Maxwell specific force law of broken loops as well.
Although going back to the pre-Maxwellian standpoint might be interesting I will refer here solely to the equations of Maxwell and the derivations based upon because most people who can understand this are aquainted with this equations and do not tolerate such big deviations. The weakness of my last post was that I omitted to give a concrete example which would give some foundation to my motor proposal.
Therefore, I will calculate an example here which shows that a modified version of my original circular B-field motor proposal can work based on the Maxwellian electrodynamic.
Without being an expert of the theory of relativity I believe to know the following facts regarding this theory:
The formalism of the theory of special relativity combines the classical equations of Maxwell in one expression. The old electromagnetic theory remains valid and has not to be modified contrary to Newton's mechanic. Therefore it is correct to calculate the B - field using the classical
formula of the vector potential A:
              A = integral j(x')/|x-x'| d3x'.
Calculating the curl we get the B-field. The calculation of the A - field of my original motor proposal is analogous to the calculation of an electrical field of an cylindrical capacitor. It can be done by
integrating the Poisson equation which, because of cylindrical coordinates and cylindrical symmetry of the outer (at radius=r2) and the inner current tube (or wire at radius r1), reduces to
           1/r d/dr (r dA/dr) =   j(r1)*deltafunction (r-r1)
                                + j(r2)*deltafunction (r-r2)
As a result we get a 1/r-dependence of B which, according Maxwell's
treatise on electricity and magnetism Vol.II §479(Dover publishing edition) (comp. as well the last but one equation of his note), leads to a null torque on the magnetic dipol charges of the magnetic rods which point radially as well as in our motor proposal. Therefore, in this point, M. Burns's critique of my post is justified. Using cylindical symmetry and assuming the Maxwell equations to be valid we get no torque and the motor cannot run.
Can other geometries (without magnetic monopols) be successful ?
M.Burns would say no perhaps, because of the conservation of energy and momentum seems to be built in in all theories from Maxwell to Einstein.
I say yes ! All what we require is a non - 1/r radial circular B-
field dependence. This can be generated by the following geometry which is analogous to that of an electrical bowl capacitor of radius r0, comp. fig.1a+b: One or more magnet rods the magnetic north poles pointing radially circulate in an orbit in the equatorial plane of a bowl which is made of conducting material. On this bowl a current is flowing in the direction from the upper pole to the lower pole. In order to have a broken loop the inner wall of the volume of the bowl is shielded by mu-metal and the inner volume of the bowl contains the current sources. The  current density on the surface is (roughly) maintained constant by adding current to appropriate locations on the surface by mu metal shielded cables. In order to calculate the field we solve again the Poisson equation. We use polar coordinates this time. Because the problem is independent from the coordinates of the angles the Poisson equation reduces to
       (d^2 A)/(dr)^2 + 2/r(dA/dr) = 1/r (d^2 (r*A))/(dr)^2
                                   = deltafunction (r-r0) j(r)
Solving this equation we get
                    A(r) = j(r0)*r0(1-r0/r)
Using this geometry and calculating the curl, a 1/r^2 - dependence of the circular B-field can be calculated in the equatorial plane of the orbit. This leads to a torque T around the upper-lower-pole axis exerted on both the rods by the magnetic charges +/- g(r) at radiuses r1/2 in the field:
              T = B(r1) * r1 * g(r1) -  B(r2) * r2 * g(r2)
Remembering that B = C/r^2 (C is a constant) in the equatorial plane we get a non-vanishing net torque of
              T = C g (1/r1 - 1/r2)
Therefore, a circular constant magnetic B - field motor is feasible.
It remains the question whether this motor violates the theory of
electromagnetism ?
We emphasized already why the normal theory of relativisic electrodynamic cannot be applied because it cannot describe the magnetic field of broken current loops.
Regarding Maxwell's equations describing the conservative balance of
momentum and energy we see that conservation of all this physical entities is restricted to electrical charges and the fields generated by them. But if we have a mechanic coupling of the field to permanent spins of a hard ferromagnet (not to a charge) then we have a situation which differs physically completely from the situation described by Maxwell as well as by the theory for special relativity.
Ampere's idea of constant molecular currents is incompatible if we leave the magnetostatics. For example a perfectly hard ferromagnet cannot be influenced by a changing B-field contrary to a current loop. There exists no Lenz Law for spins. The coupling of a field to spins normally is not accounted for in the energy balances of the theory of eletromagnetism. Therefore, the situation is not covered by electro>dynamics<. I remember that I emphasized that I did not claim that my motor proposal is a perpetuum mobile. I cannot claim this because I do not know the exact energy balance. I suppose that energy is needed to accelerate the motor because the rotating magnetic charges induce a (Lenz) voltage in the current tubes which acts against the battery voltages driving the current.
Nevermind, the question remains open: Is it possible to replace the electrical sources of the circular non 1/r - B-field by permanent magnets ?. If this is the case then we would have a "perpetuum mobile" and we would have the problem how to establish the conservation laws again under this conditions.
I do not know whether the theory of relativity is able to replace
adequately the magnetic moment of a spin formally by a local dipolar
distribution of magnetic monopoles, or whether a formal replacement of the spins by a magnetic dipol distribution can explain some facts partially.
1) Landau L.D., Lifshitz E.M.
   Elektrodynamik der Kontinua   Kapitel4, Paragraph 30, Aufgabe 1
   Verlag Harri Deutsch, Akademie Verlag Berlin 1982
2) Whittaker, Edmund
   A history of the theories of Aether and Electricity
   Vol. I  The classical theories
   Aspden, Harold
   Physics without Einstein     Sabberton, Southampton 1969
   Modern Aether Physics        Sabberton, Southampton 1975
   International Glasnost Journal of Fundamental Physics
   Vol.3, No.11, Marinov, Stefan; p. 18
side view:                      |
                         / ------|------ \
            current    //        |        \ \
               bowl  //\         |        / \ \
                   //    \       |      /     \ \
  ----------------||       \     |    /         ||----------------
  |  ___________  ||         |   |   |          ||  ___________  |
  | |N         S| ||    +   ___ ___ ___         || |S         N| |
  | |___________| ||    -    -   -   - batteries|| |___________| |
  |    rotor      ||         |   |   |          ||    rotor      |
  ----------------||       /     |    \         ||----------------
                   \\    /       |      \      //
                     \\/   mu-metal-shield\  //
                       \\ _______|_____|__ //
                                 |  rotation axis
fig.1a: permanent magnetic field motor, side view
        current flowing from the upper to the lower pole of the bowl
        current density is constant over whole surface
        field of inner current source is shielded off
top view:                                 path of rotation of the
                                             magnet satellites on
                           _____________            \    rotor
                         / ------------- \            \
            current    //                 \ \           \
               bowl  //                     \ \          |
                   //                         \ \        |
                  ||                            ||       |
     ___________  ||                            ||  ___________
    |N         S| ||                            || |S         N|
    |___________| ||                            || |___________|
                  ||                            ||
                  ||                            ||
          |        \\                          //
          |          \\                      //
          |            \\ ________________ //
           \             \________________/
                   \----->  path of rotation of the magnet
                            satellites on rotor
fig.1b: permanent magnetic field motor, top view
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