1.version released 15.12.96, revised 8.1.97, 2.version 20.2.97, revised 3.3.97

**4. The energy balance of the Brown - Ecklin generator**

** **Normally, regarding energy energy balances in electrodynamics
every physicist assumes that this problem is solved already in physics
by the equation of energy conservation in an electromagnetic field. But
if we have a more precise look at the derivation of this equation we recognize
that this imagination only holds for the special case if moving charge
interacts with moving charge[8]. But if we have a coupling of the field
to spins in a collective (thermodynamic) system of a hard ferromagnet (not
to a charge) then we have a situation which differs physically from the
situation described by the usual Maxwell theory as well as by standard
theory of special and general relativity which is build around electrodynamics.
Then we have to realize that Ampere's idea of molecular currents gets incompatible
with reality if we leave magnetostatics. For example a perfectly hard ferromagnet
cannot be influenced by a changing B-field - contrary to a current loop
in a coil. There exists no Lenz Law for it. However, the law of induction
(i.e. the Lenz law) is used to derive the equation of energy conservation.
Therefore this equation must fail if it is applied to the time dependent
coupling of a field to the spins of a hard permanent magnet. Exactly this
situation is exploited technologically by Brown's flux switching generator.
Therefore, we have to look for an energy balance elsewhere. We realize
that

1) our machine works periodically according our simulation,

2) every state of the generator can be simulated quasi-stationary,

3) the magnetic field of the coil is a potential field, and

4) the generator exchanges heat with the environment because the generator runs cool !

From 1)-3) we conclude that the energy balance has a potential
character and because of (4) we make a thermodynamic ansatz for the free
energy with S:=entropy
and T:=temperature

If we integrate this potential over a closed cycle we get the energy
balance

where
is the heat energy exchanged with the heat bath of environment, understood
in the widest sense as possible. Perhaps this last two equations can be
derived from the quantum dynamic Dirac equation which adds a tensor to
the Maxwell stress tensor due to the spin. If this equation is applied
to a many particle system a transition into thermodynamics should be possible
by averaging out the many partikel coordinates and reducing the system
to the thermodynamic coordinates.

However, we should note that equation (7) and (8) do not hold for every
electromechanic system because it is possible to generate stationary non-conservative
magnetic fields which are mathematically uncompatible with a potential
formalism like thermodynamics[12]. To give an example I will propose here
a brushless magnetic D.C. motor with a non-conservative force field indepent
from time. Maxwell [10] showed that the circular field lines of the B-field
around a conducting file can not produce a permanent torque
on a constant magnetic dipol because of the 1/r dependence of the field.
Therefore, in order to get a motor, all what we require is a circular non-1/r
radial B-field dependence. This can be generated by the following geometry
which is analogous to that of an electrical bowl capacitor of radius r_{0},
comp. fig.12: One or more magnet rods the magnetic north poles pointing
radially circulate in an orbit in the equatorial plane of a bowl which
is made of conducting material. On this bowl a current is flowing in the
direction from the upper pole to the lower pole. In order to have a broken
current loop the inner wall of the volume of the bowl is shielded by mu-metal
and the inner volume of the bowl contains the current sources. The current
density on the surface is (roughly) maintained constant by adding current
at appropriate locations on the surface preventing the field of the cables
in the inner of the bowl by the inner mu metal shield layer of the bowl.
In order to calculate the field we solve again the Poisson equation for
the magnetic vector potential **A**. We use polar coordinates this time.
Because the problem is independent from the coordinates of the angles the
Poisson equation reduces to

Solving this equation we get

Now, according standard electrodynamics we calculate the magnetic B-field
using the formula of the vector potential **A**:

Calculating the curl we get the B-field. Using this geometry and calculating the curl, a 1-dependence of the circular B-field can be calculated in the equatorial plane of the orbit. This leads to a constant torque around the upper-lower-pole axis exerted on both the rods by the magnetic charges +/- g(r) at radiuses in the field:

Remembering that B = C (C is a constant) in the equatorial plane we get a non-vanishing net torque of

Therefore, a circular constant magnetic B - field motor is feasible. But the energy balance for this motor still has to be established.

**5. Technological outlook**

** **The principle standing behind the Ecklin generator I call
mechnical flux switching. In electromechanics this principle has been applied
in generators proposed and build by

1) Kromrey [6] comp. fig.13

The Kromrey generator is a precursor of the Ecklin-generator. It contained
already a closed flux which is switched periodically by rotation. The rotor
coil still has windings on it like a normal generator. The generator had
already anti-Lenz behaviour, i.e. lower torque with increasing current
from the generator. The efficiency was about 1.

2) Bedini [2]

In a Bedini generator of 1985 the rotor consists of two parallel rotating
opposite faced permanent artificial horseshoe magnets (made by two cylindical
permanent magnets bound by a soft iron) whose common circuit of magnetic
flux is closed periodically by two stationary iron cores which are wound
around by coils each which deliver the energy of the generator. The oscillogram
shown by Bedini confirms qualitatively our calculated diagram. It contains
a positive and a negative pair of spikes because the direction of the flux
through the coils alterates every half rotation. Bedini restored already
the energy from the generator back into a battery by use of a switching
power electronic. The energy of the battery delivered enough power to drive
the motor of the generator and, because of the overunity efficiency of
the generator, a further battery could be charged additionally.

3) Dorman [3] comp. fig.14

Dorman has announced a book about the design of LIAG - generators (**l**ow
**i**nertia **a**rmature **g**enerator). In a short mail he mentions
his design form:

"A LIAG has a rotating perforated magnetic shield that spins between
a stationary magnetic field (for our purposes, and for greatest efficiency,
made up of permanent rare earth supermagnets) and stationary coils (wound
upon laminated soft iron cores). This shield alternately passes and blocks
the magnetic field and thereby induces an electric current in the coils."
Dorman emphasizes that the construction of LIAG - generators would be quite
cheap because the rotating armatures are quite light reducing the costs
of bearing and armatures.

For the Brown-Ecklin design upscaling is possible if the flux switching
iron pieces are mounted on a cylindrical cage or tube which rotates, comp
fig.15. They close and open periodically the stationary magnetic circuit
which are mounted stationary in the outer or even inner periphery of the
cage. The cage or tube construction must prevent any inductive eddy currents
contrary to an asyncronous cage induction motor/generator. Therefore, the
material of the cage has to be an insulator - or the possible circuits
in the cage/tube have to be broken by isolating parts.

For all known mechanical flux switching generators the difficulty
exists that for every form of load impedance connected to the concerned
generators the waveform changes because the differential equation changes
as well. The power produced by these generators contains many A.C. overtones
which are surely not compatible with today technology of D.C. and A.C.
current. Therefore, to make this generators useful the form of energy released
has to be changed.

Bedini has done this using power electronics which restores back the
energy released in batteries which act as well as capacitive buffers. Acc.
to a open mail [13] the rpm of the generator is chosed to be in the resonance
state optimizing to get energy at high voltage but with low current and
low back torque. For the author this is difficult to believe because the
preliminary numeric experiments with additional capacities in the circuit
show that they reduce the output power. Flux gate generators are more efficient
at higher ohmic load. Therefore, perhaps a transformer stage between flux
gate generator and battery could be responsible for that. A further step
would be to connect an alternating current shaper to this setup or to the
mechanical flux switching generators directly to produce alternating current
for external consumption.

Perhaps upscaling in number of flux switches pro length and number
of flux switches pro circuit of all these different types of flux generators
allows to get off the many harmonics problem to certain extent. If n magnets
and n stator generator coils of different wounding numbers and in appropriate
distance from each other stator coil are taken then, a purer alternate
current can be produced by connecting the coils of appropriate wounding
numbers (i.e. voltages) and distances(i.e. phase differences) which deliver
the appropriate A.C. voltage in combination if they are connected or swiched
in series by the electronics or commutators at the right moment. The adding
of the coils could be controled by a microprocessor which reacts to load
situation and tries to optimize the output to a sinus signal.

Therefore, the initial weakness of this type of generators could be
overcame and their capability of overunity efficiency -which allows a gain
feedback of energy into a motor driving the generator again- promises a
purely economic end of atomic and oil-driven power technologies soon.

**Acknowlegdements:**

Thanks for some critical remarks regarding the first version of this article especially to Larry Wharton (wharton@climate.gsfc.nasa.gov), Greg Watson (gwatson@enternet.com.au), Robert Dorman (redorman@plix.com) and Stefan Hartmann (harti@bbtt.de). They helped to improve the second version.

**Bibliography:**

1) Brown, Paul The magnetic distributor generator 1982

copy of a report, 1982

entry: Dr. Nieper Gravity Folder

was available from "list of shielding theory of gravity papers" at

Admiral Ruge Archives of biophysics and future science

Keith Brewer Library, Richland Center, Wisc. 53581 USA

2) John Bedinis
homepage at http://rand.nidlink.com/~john1/index.html

look in the Kromrey
section

3) Dorman, Robert short message from redorman@plix.com

from mailing list freenrg-l@eskimo.com at www.eskimo.com/~billb

4) Bauer, W.D.

Incompatibility of Planck's Version of the Second Law with Thermodynamics
Regarding Mixtures in Fields 29.5.96 see my homepage at www.overunity.com/theory.htm

5) Ecklin, John W. US-patent No.3,879,622 Apr. 22, 1975

6)Kromrey, Raymond US-patent No. 3,374,376

German patent No. 1,463,899

French patent No. 911,348 Okt. 4,1962

7)Engeln-Müllges G., Reutter F.

Formelsammlung zur numerischen Mathematik

mit C-Programmen B.I.Wissenschaftsverlag Mannheim 1990

source code of the Runge-Kutta routine is available at

Prof. G. Engeln-Müllges Kesselstr.88 52076 Aachen-Lichtenbusch

8)Jackson,J.D. Classical Electrodynamics second edition Wiley New York 1975

9)Hielscher, Gottfried Energie im Überfluß- Ergebnisse unkonventionellen
Denkens

Adolf Sponholtz Verlag Hameln 1981

10)Maxwell J.D. Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism Vol.I

(Dover publishing edition) should be available in book shops

11)Magnetismus - Dauermagnete Werkstoffe und System

Catalog by IBS Magnet Ing.K.H.Schroeter Kurfuerstenstr.92 D-12105 Berlin

12) The idea of the non-conservative force field has been posted already by me at 9th May 1995 under pseudonym by harti@shb.contrib.de (now harti@bbtt.de) in the forum SCI.PHYSICS, ALT.SCI.NEW-THEORIES, SCI.ENERGY,SCI.ENVIRONMENT CL.ENERGIE.ALTERNATIVEN, ALT.ENERGY.RENEWABLE and ALT.PARANET.SCIENCE under the thread "Burn's critique of PM_Square! free energy !"

13) Wesley Crosiar (crosiar@goldrush.com) An open letter to all working
..

Source lost, probably freenrg-l.@eskimo.com or vortex-l@eskimo.com

Fig.12: A brushless non conservative force-field DC-motor with non-1/r-B-field.

If the current flows from the batteries maintaining a constant current density on the surface of the bowl, and if the magnets are held in the orbit, the north pole pointing radially, the torque on the permanent magnets is constant at every moment enforcing the magnets to permanent cyclic motion around the hollow magnetic field shielding mu metal bowl because the force field generated by B-field of this setup is non-conservativ.

upper figure: sideview of cross section

lower figure: top view of an equatorial section of the bowl field and permanent magnets

Fig.13: the Kromrey flux gate generator - side view cross section:

The current comes from the coils 6 of the rotor 2 (with axis 3) over the brushes 7 to the commutator 5. The excitation coils 1 generate a permanent magetic stator field.

Fig.14 LIAG-generator: A magnetic shield opens and closes periodically the magnetic flux from the permanent magnet to the coil (picture by R.Dorman)