*Welcome to the OVERUNITY-THEORY
page*

The theme of this website is the physical comparison between experiment and theory
of perpetuum mobile claims and overunity operation. Interesting are the conditions where overunity devices might work
and where not. To promote discussions ideas are spread here at a suboptimal workbench
level of different degrees of quality.

The website is published mainly as a individual, private and non-profit initiative.

If it is not noted otherwise the author does not speak for any institution
or company but only for himself.

We will do our best to present correct facts. But especially in this
area of science errors may be possible at this initial hobbyist level under the present restrictions. It is the
policy of this page to raise the discussion of overunity to a scientific
level by steady following the theme. So be careful: You are here on glazed
frost. If you believe in these things you are doing this in your own responsibility !

Linked paged of other authors are only illustrative and may not represent the opinion of the author. We decline any responsiblity for political
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**The Author: Wolf-Dietrich
Bauer**
last update 07.12.2015

** Bauer, Wolf-Dietrich About Energy Conservation, Second Law and Overunity **

available in any bookshop at the fixed price (Germany or Austria): 50 Euro or 60 CHFr

The book has a theoretical approach. It makes some reports about working perpetuum mobiles understandable because it reduces any mystified super hyper high tech concept to simple scientific common sense ready for engineering. Serious perpetuum mobile claims are explained as analoga to wind wheels. They can be described by non-conservative field mathematics. The book is the most actual update of the article collection of this website. It contains much new material like a simple explanation of permanent running magnet motors and a discussion of inverted hysteresis systems. All information in this monography is carefully referenced. The contents of the book you find here !

Talks about the contents of the book:
at DVR -Congress Berlin 28/29 Nov. 2015: **
in German** **
in English**

Ein Überblick über die Grauzone in der Wissenschaft

This monography tells the history about men who tried to include life energy concepts into science. It extracts and refers carefully all facts about Od (v.Reichenbach), Atonizität und Zoozität (Ziegler), Orgon (W.Reich), N-rays(Blondlot), Schauberger and gives a short chapter about esoteric concepts which rely all on the concept of life energy.

all downloads here only in German !

**
Title, Table of contents and glossary from the 1 ^{st}
edition 1990 **

__Test of thermodynamical overunity claims__

**1) Second law induced existence conditions for isothermal 2-phase region cyclic processes in binary mixtures**

W.D. Bauer, W. Muschik, Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics Vol.23,
No.2 1998 , p.141-158

**2) Kink conditions for isobars in binary v-x-phase diagrams induced
by the second law**

W.D. Bauer, W. Muschik, Archives of Thermodynamics Vol.19, No.3-4,
1998, p.59-83

**Abstracts:**

Conditions describing the behavior of the kink of isobars at the dew
line in v-x- phase diagrams of binary mixtures are proved using the second
law. They are interesting in connection to the compatibility of Serogodsky´s
and van Platen´s cycles with the second law of thermodynamics. The
conditions are tested using a generalized Bender equation of state with
mixture rules of Tsai and Shuy. The second article contains additionally
the complete set of formulas useful for programming for modifying these
equations of state.

**3) Das
Perpetuum Mobile von heute - wissenschaftlich fundiert und state of the
art**

Frank Wiepuetz (Pseudonym)

NET-Journal Vol.11(3/4) 2006, p.18-21 (in German)

**4) Actual
candidates for second law violations**

Frank Wiepuetz (Pseudonym)

NET-Journal Vol.11(3/4) 2006, detailed addendum to the previous article.
(in English)

__Thermodynamics in Fields__

**5) The
generalized first law and thermodynamic cycles **released
6.12.99

**Abstract:**

The article represents the first law as abstract mathematical definition
to describe cyclic processes. Acc. to the author it has nothing to do whether
a quantity like energy can be measured balanced experimentally.

Furthermore the van Platen cycle is presented. The general thermodynamical
theory of the problem is written down and applied to a (quite lenghty)
Bender equation of state describing a mixture. The main line of the computer
calculation is explained. The van Platen cycle is calculated.

As results profiles of pressure, concentration and spec. volume versus
the radius of a centrifuge are shown. In effect a overunity cycle of the
van Platen cycle is not possible.

**To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !**

**6) Second law
versus variation principles**

released 5.9.00, corrected 22.01.2002, 08.02.02, 10.02.02, 09.04.02,
02.07.02, 28.10.03

**Abstract:**

The field-dependent equilibrium thermodynamics is derived with
two methods: either by using the potential formalism either by the statistical
method. Therefore, Pontrjagin's extremum principle of control theory is
applied to an extended ensemble average. This approach allows
to derive the grand partition function of thermodynamics as
a result of a control problem with the Hamilton energy. Furthermore,
the maximum entropy principle follows and the second law in a
modified form. The derivation can predict second law violations if
cycles with irreversibilities in varying potential fields
are included into consideration. This conclusion is supported indirectly
by experimental data from literature. The upper maximum gain
efficiency of a cycle with a known polymer solution as dielectrics
was estimated to less than 1 promille per cycle.

Note added in proof 28th October 2003:

Comparing this preprint work with an analogous ferrofluidic system
discrepancies are found . The concrete models shown in section 5 are insufficient
to settle the question. A way to solve the problem is proposed.

The articles above replace and updates the following older articles:
** Incompatibility
of Planck¹s version of Second Law regarding mixtures in fields**
released 29.5.96

( basic ideas crossposted 4.-6.April 1995 by harti@shb.contrib.net
(new email adress: harti@harti.com) under the thread ³TOMI and PM_square
explanation² to the newsgroups sci.energy, alt.energy.renewable, alt.paranet.science,
alt.sci.physics.new-theories, cl.energie.alternativen, de.sci.electronics,
sci.environment, sci.physics, sci.physics.fusion, sci.physics.particle)
** From
mechanics to thermodynamics** released 6.7.98

**To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !**

__Test of mechanical overunity claims__

**7) The
parametric overunity rotator - the Wuerth power booster**

released 13.11.99, withdrawn 28.2.00, revised 10.4.00, corrections
15.4.00, big update 11.9.00

for the new preprint pdf - file (Acrobat 4.0) from 30.10.2001 download
click here

**Abstract:**

A simple mechanical setup proposed and built by F. Wuerth is calculated
acc. to theoretical mechanics. The calculation predicts no overunity behaviour
due to parametric changing moment of inertia. The calculation of the author
is supported by his own experimental observations. Experiments of Wuerth
und Bucher deviate from the prediction of classical mechanics.

**To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !**

**Experiments to the article above:**
** The
parametric rotator - a simple experiment **18.11.00
** The
"gliding pearl" experiment**16.9.01
** The
"falling disk" experiment**4.10.01
** The
"Imris" experiment ** 2.7.02
** A
evaluation proposal for the Wuerth centrifugal pumper** released
2.7.02

**Abstract:**

Wuerth's centrifugal pumper is proposed for evaluation. Acc. to Wuerth
the cause of the claimed overunity are forces deviatiating from classical
mechanics. A setup to check this forces is proposed. Acc. to theoretical
mechanics no overunity is possible. A calculation method is presented which
allows to describe the behaviour of the pumper from classical mechanic.
This method has the advantage that no inertial tensor are needed for description.

**To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !**

__Test of electrical overunity claims__

**8) The Brown-Ecklin generator**

**Abstract:**

A theoretical electromechanical model of Brown's generator is simulated.
It proves the possibility of overunity work efficiency confirming Brown's
measurements qualitatively. The energy balance of this machine is discussed.
Improvements of the models are proposed to fit the the model closer to
reality. The technology adapting this generators to today electrical energy
production and consumption is outlined. In Part 4 we built a modified Brown-Ecklin
type flux-switch generator and tested its efficiency. The test results
do support the usual belief in energy conservation. The results are in
contradiction with our theoretical prediction. The causes of this discrepancy
are discussed.

**Part
1: 1) Introduction 2) the Brown-Ecklin generator** released
14.12.96

**Part
2: 3) Computer simulation of the Brown generator** 1.version
15.12.96, 2. version 20.2.97, revised 3.3.97

**Part
3: 4) Energy balance of the Brown generator 5) Technological outlook ;
Bibliography**

1.version released 15.12.96, revised 8.1.97, 2.version 20.2.97, revised
3.3.97

**Part 4: Test
results of the BHT- flux-switch generator** released
11.8.97

** Part 5: A
DC-motor proposal without brushes** released 16.2.99

**Abstract:**

It is shown that non-conservative force-field can be generated by a
construction using a permanent current distribution including iron as magnetic
shielding material driving permanent magnets as rotors giving off mechanic
energy. This motor changes the torque in the magnetic field into motion.

**To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !**

**9) Do
non-conservative potential perpetual running machines exist ?**

released 26.6.97 some additions 8.7.97 revised 5.5.98

**Abstract:**

It is shown that a system of coupled cog-wheels obeys a non-conservation
relation of angular momentum.

It is shown shown by an example that a changing charge in a (conservative)
ratched potential is subjected to a non-conservative force field which
generates a perpetuum mobile cycle. It is shown that this model supports
the perpetuum mobile claims of the Watson-Hartmann SMOT device only if
it is assumed that magnetisation of the moving iron material depends from
field gradient d**H/**dx as well which can be present in micromagnetism.
A nonlinear dependence of magnetisation from the field **H** alone gives
no perpetuum mobile cycle. This fact is analogous to the known behaviour
of electric cycles of non-linear capacity and coil.

**To get the preprint HTML version click on the link above !**

**10) The Zaev-effect**

**Abstract:**

The Zaev effect is a electro- or magnetocaloric effect which is claimed to
violate the Second Law. The effect appears if a capacitance is charged
and discharged with different velocities. Then under certain conditions
more output than input energy needed comes from the capacitance probably
due to a conversion of heat into electricity during the cycle. For introductional
reading and following the last discussions, see here.

A differential equation is developed which calculates the the thermal
hysteresis of an arbitrary material in an electric cycle. It is shown by
a numerical example for susceptibilities dependent in first order from
E that the Zaev effect can not be produced as a classical electrocaloric
thermodynamic effect. Experimental data from Partington et al. suggest
that such an effect may exist if the paraelectric material properties show
relaxation under voltage, i.e. if they are time dependent. In Part III
literature references are discussed which seem to confirm the experimental
data and give an outlook on new possible theoretical interpretations of
these effects.

**Part I :
The differential equation of the problem** released 22.12.98
**Part II
: The differential equation solved and its results and independent experiments**
released 20.1.99
**Part III:
Further experimental and theoretical evidence under discussion **
released 28.4.99

**To get the preprint HTML versions click on the links above !**

**11) The Maxwell
equations including magnetic monopoles **released 29.1.04

Abstract:

The derivation of the Maxwell equations is reproduced whereby magnetic
charges are included. This ansatz yields following results:

1) Longitudinal Ampère forces in a differential magnetostatic
force law are improbable. Otherwise a electric current would generate magnetic
charges.

2) Simple magnetic and electric induced polarization phenomena are
completely analogous and are described by a Laplace equation.

3) Permanent magnetic fields can be understood to be caused by magnetic
charges. Consequently, a moving permanent magnet represent a magnetic
current which generates a electric field. Applications of this theory could
be Hamel-spinner and Searl-disk.

4) The electromagnetic tensors of energy and momentum have some additional
terms which are written down generally.

5) If the electric material parameter are influenced by non-electric
variables (for instance temperature or pressure), the formalism of electrodynamics
is not sufficient to describe the system and has to be completed by further
differential equations from the other areas of physics.

6) Nonlinear electro-thermodynamic systems may violate the second law
of thermodynamics. This is illustrated by a electric cycle with a data
storing FET invented by Yusa & Sakaki.

**To get the zipped PDF ( ~500 kB !) version click on the link above
!**

**12) Von der invertierten Hysterese
zum Overunity-Oszillator**

Wilfried Rodzaff (Pseudonym)

NET-Journal Vol.12(1/2) 2007, p.18-21 (in German)

**13) From inverted hysteresis to the overunity oscillator**

Wilfried Rodzaff (Pseudonym)

NET-Journal Vol.12(1/2) 2007, with detailed addendum to the previous article.
(in English)

**To get the PDF version click on the link above
!**

**14) Future Energy eNews - IRI/Sept 9,2006**

from a letter to A. Schneider
(in English)

**To get the PDF version click on the link above
!**